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The effect of water content on the protection afforded by various clothing assemblies has been measured. When clothing contains a moisture barrier a large increase in protection is obtained by wetting it. Without a moisture barrier, wet clothing gives less protection against radiant heat than dry clothing because of the inward diffusion of moisture; against flames the protection may be slightly higher for wet clothing than for dry. Possible reasons for this difference between flame and radiation exposure are discussed. There is a large increase in protection if the clothing is wetted down continuously but there is a danger of scalding if permeable clothing is wetted down when it is hot.