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Reports on 240 casualties caused by the direct ignition of clothing have been analysed. About three quarters of the casualties were female, and half of the total number were children under 10 years of age. Two thirds of the garments ignited first were nightgowns, dresses, overalls and skirts, and the material most commonly reported was cotton, which was used in 68% of all garments. In about half the cases the garments ignited were in the medium flammability range, i.e. with flammability ratings between 30 and 60. Fifty-seven per cent of the casualties were due to ignition by open coal fires. In about 60 per cent of the casualties the area of the body burned was less than 20 per cent, but thirteen casualties suffered burns to the extent of more than 50 per cent of the body surface. In the reports considered there were twenty-six fatal accidents of whom nine were male and seventeen female.