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The possibility of fire inception caused by spontaneous ignition of piled RDF was elucidated. Various properties of RDF were measured. Pyrolysis behavior of RDF was examined by TG-DTA and apparent activation energy of RDF was calculated. In addition, the critical ignition temperature (Tc) of RDF was predicted by the theory of thermal explosion by Frank-Kamenetskii, and the relation between the Tc and the height of RDF pile was calculated. The results show that the relation between the Tc and the height of RDF pile is almost identical for RDFs of different states, although the thermal conductivity and bulk density of RDF sample depend on its state. This implies that the powdering of RDF does not lower the Tc largely.