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To find the factors causing variations in fire incidence and to observe general trends in the overall fire picture, a study has been made of annual fire statistics for the period 1947-52. An increase in the frequency of fires in industrial premises during the period was linked with an increase in industrial activity. The incidence of fire in a number of industries has been considered in relation to the net value of the output and to the number of employees in the industry. It appears that the highest incidence of fire in industrial premises occurred in the wood and cork manufacturing industries, and to a lesser extent in the chemical and allied industries. In particular industries there were some outstanding causes of fire, for example, electric irons accounted for about 12 per cent of the fires in the manufacture of clothing, while mechanical heat and sparks were responsible for almost 40 per cent of the fires in the manufacture of textiles. The rate of incidence of attendance at fires in dwellings in Scotland remained approximately constant during the period at 20 per 10 000 dwellings at risk per year. In England and Wales, the rate of incidence was 12 per 10 000 dwellings in 1947 and increased to 16 per 10 000 dwellings in 1952. The difference in rates of incidence between Scotland, and England and Wales may be associated with the density of population. The apparent increase in the rate of incidence in England and Wales is considered to be partly due to an increasing tendency to call fire brigades at the first sign of an outbreak. The rate of incidence in departmental stores appears to be similar to that which would be expected in groups of retail shops with similar numbers of employees. The highest rate of incidence among retail establishments is in meat, fish and poultry shops and the difference between this trade and other retail trades appears to be due mainly to fires caused by faults in electric refrigerators. In agricultural occupancies and in forestry, the frequency of fires attended varies from year to year and appears to be largely dependent on climatic conditions. The frequency of attendances at fires in oil and petrol driven road vehicles increased from about 4000 in 1947 to about 6000 in 1952. It appears that there were about 1:2 to 1:4 attendances each year for each thousand licences. The most frequent causes of these fires were faults in electric wiring and heat, sparks or friction caused by engines. The incidence of fatal casualties in fires attended by Fire Brigades was fairly constant during the six year period at an average of 1.3 fatalities per 100 fires attended in buildings. Non-fatal casualties increased from 6.4 per 100 fires in 1947 to 8.6 per 100 fires in 1952 but this apparent increase may have been due to changes in reporting procedure or to an increasing tendency to call for Fire Brigade assistance. There appears to have been a growing tendency for fire Brigades to use small equipment such as first-aid hose reels and chemical extinguishers. The proportion of fires extinguished before the arrival of the Fire Brigade has shown a tendency to increase and this is a further indication of an increasing tendency to call for Fire Brigade assistance in the early stages of a fire.