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Mathematical Modelling of Pool Fire Burning Rates in a Full- Scale Ventilated Tunnel

Wang, H.Y. and Sahraoui H., 2014. Mathematical Modelling of Pool Fire Burning Rates in a Full- Scale Ventilated Tunnel. Fire Safety Science 11: 361-375. 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.11-361


A computational fluid dynamic model with full coupling between gaseous and liquid phases is developed to predict buring rates of liquid pool fires in ventilated full-scale tunnel. Rates of fuel release are calculated using predictions of flame feedback to the surface of the pool. A pool fire in tunnel is modelled as an unsteady process, from the time of ignition until convergence to a quasi-steady burning rate. This feedback supports sustained flame above the pool surface and controls the burning rate of the fuel. The numerical model solves three dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with submodels for soot formation and thermal radiation transfer. Turbulent combustion process is modelled by an Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) by using two chemical reaction steps to CO prediction. The numerical model is shown to possess the ability to predict the effect of ventilation on burning rate and the initial growth period in a full- scale tunnel fire. The current study indicates that CO generation is relatively independent of position in the overfire region, and correlated solely as a function of mixture fraction. While no correlation of soot concentrations in terms of the mixture fraction is found. Abundant CO and soot are formed around the fire base, which is later deflected near the tunnel ceiling, and the backflow brings about the toxic products with a noticeable smoke stratification as the airflow velocity is below a critical value.


toxicity, heat flux, backlayering flow, CFD, tunnel fire modelling

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