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In December 1994 Russian Federation adopted 'Fire Safety Act' governing legal, economic and social aspects of fire safety in Russia. The Act defines the system of fire safety, specifies the functions of State Fire Service and the duties of state and local fire safety authorities. The adoption of the Act was dictated by unfavorable tendency in growth of number of fires and human victims. For the last years 300 thousand fires take place in Russia annually where 12-13 thousand people die. The research into fire safety problems is mainly performed in the institutions submitted to the Ministry of the Interior (All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection, Moscow Fire Safety Institute and the others), in the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences (the Institute of Chemical Physics, the Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion and the others), in the universities of the Ministry of Higher Education (Moscow State University, Moscow State Building University, Khabarobsk Polytechnic University and the others). The research is conducted in the following main directions: 0 fire behavior of substances, materials, constructions, buildings, structures; 0 fire and explosion dynamics in the rooms of buildings, structures, groups of buildings and structures; human behavior, flora and fauna under fire conditions; 0 ecological aspects of fire fighting; 0 ways, methods and means of fire prevention and suppression; arrangement and management of fire prevention and protection activities; 0 fire safety economics. This presentation further introduces the framework, recent results and application of these directions in Russian fire research.