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Flame Entrainment and Its Application to Compartment Fires

Lattimer, B., 2008. Flame Entrainment and Its Application to Compartment Fires. Fire Safety Science 9: 883-894. doi:10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-883


Entrainment into flames is important in predicting the mass flow into the upper-layer of compartment fires where the flame height is similar to or greater than the layer interface height. An analytical model for entrainment into flames was developed based on the simple wetted perimeter approach. The model was validated with existing data and other analytical models for area and line fires located in the open, against a wall, and in a corner. The validated flame entrainment model was integrated into a two-layer compartment fire model and used to predict door flow rates and interface heights with the fire in different locations within the compartment. Predicted door flow rates and interface heights agreed well with compartment fire data from several sources.

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