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Hasemi, Y., Moriyama, S., Nam, D., Tanaka, S., Okazawa, N., Yonezawa, M. and Ding, W., 2004. Research Needs On The Fire Safety Of Subway Stations -Fire Disasters, Regulations, Research Efforts And Recent Smoke Movement Tests In Subway Stations In Japan . AOFST 6
Fire disasters in underground railway systems, development of related regulations and research efforts on subway fires in Japan are reviewed. Fire safety regulations for stations and trains in underground railway systems were first introduced in the 1970â€™s after the Subway Hibiya-Line fire in 1968 and the JR Hokuriku tunnel fire in 1972. There has been few significant subway fires killing passengers since then, but the general commonness between the Japanese and Korean subway systems suggests considerable risk and potential hazard of subway fires. Experiments using subway stations actually in service in Tokyo in 2003 further revealed considerable difficulty in the conventional operation strategy of smoke control and firefighting in subway stations. Importance of the restriction of heat release rate through either the control of combustibility of lining materials or the automatic fire extinguishments and establishment of alternative evacuation routes on either ends of a platform, and appropriate operation of shutters on the stairs between the platform and the concourse is pointed out.