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Wood pyrolysis under a real fire was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and fir particles were selected as the testing sample. The consumption and supply of oxygen during pyrolysis process was considered. Pyrolysis from ambient to 700°C under normal steady environment was studied as well. Consumption of oxygen in the pyrolysis process would have an obvious effect on the mass loss rate and heat released. The final residue yield depended on the atmosphere in the second stage, lying from about 375 to 500°C. With the supply of air, the oxidation of gaseous product and char gave out much heat, and finally reached a low residue yield. When the heat source was removed during pyrolysis and then put in again, water evaporated before 150°C. The samples began to decompose at a lower temperature.