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Three-dimensional Modeling Of Intumescent Behavior In Fires

Butler, K.M., Baum, H.R. and Kashiwagi, T., 1997. Three-dimensional Modeling Of Intumescent Behavior In Fires. Fire Safety Science 5: 523-534. doi:10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.5-523


A method of studying the swelling and thermal behavior of intumescent materials using understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes is described. The material is treated as a highly viscous fluid with properties dependent on temperature. The growth rate, migration, and thermal effects of a large number of bubbles are individually calculated using approximate analytical solutions to mass, momentum, and energy equations, and the collective behavior is obtained as a summation of the individual velocity and temperature fields. The approach and implementation of this model are described and demonstrated.


intumescence, fire retardants, numerical modeling

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